Limitations and other challenges from indirect price-based control of populations of flexible loads?


Demand flexibility and its responsiveness under price-based control is a major research field. Much attention has been paid to model demand elasticity as synonymous with demand flexibility. But demand flexibility comes mostly as load shifting, and load shifting dynamics have been neglected when modelling demand response. In this talk, we will show the results of modeling basic load shifting dynamics with a particle hopping cellular automaton (CA), and interpret such results to derive response intrinsic limitations from direct control of such loads. We will then look at dynamics from indirect price-based control focusing on the hysteresis of the price-response characteristic and on the difficulties, hysteresis imposes to control. We will finally use the CA to model plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) battery discharge capabilities of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technologies and discuss the value added to PEV aggregators by evolving from ordinary load-shifting into V2G responsive services.